Dr. Josiah Trowbridge

Categories:Buffalo Mayors, People
Historic Buffalo
Trowbridge House

Fig. 1: N.W. Corner of Pearl and Huron Sts. (c.1880s-1913), The house built by Dr. Josiah Trowbridge and occupied by the Trowbridge family until 1843. Source: Buffalo & Erie County Public Library.

Dr. Josiah Trowbridge

Born: September 28, 1785 in Framingham, Massachusetts

Died: September 13, 1862 in Buffalo, New York

Buffalo Mayor: 1837

Political Affiliation: Whig

Early Life

Dr. Josiah Trowbridge was born on September 28, 1785 to Captain John Trowbridge and Mary Bent of Framingham, Massachusetts.1 Captain John Trowbridge was a Revolutionary War veteran who fought in the Battle of Bunker Hill. A well-respected member of the community, Captain Trowbridge taught school and filled various roles in local government, including serving as Farmington town treasurer for twenty-five years, beginning in 1799.2

The third-born of four children (all boys), young Dr. Josiah Trowbridge was not cut out for manual labor. His first fourteen years of life were spent on his father’s farm, but the work “[proved] too laborious…his health not being equal to the task assigned him”.3 Thus in 1799, Dr. Trowbridge took a position as clerk at his elder brother John’s business in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts.4 But Dr. Trowbridge wasn’t suited for mercantile life either, and he soon became bored with the job. In 1800, he sailed to Holland, seeking excitement, and apparently found it on his return voyage, when rough seas nearly destroyed the ship.5

Upon returning home, Dr. Trowbridge decided on a career in the medical field. He commenced preparatory studies under Doctors Willard and Kittredge, two highly regarded physicians in their day.6 Following in his father’s footsteps, Dr. Trowbridge taught school for two winters during this time. By successfully managing a roomful of unruly students, Dr. Trowbridge demonstrated a natural ability to lead others, although today his tactics would probably be frowned upon in most classrooms. According to his son John Smith, in Dr. Trowbridge’s later years he entertained his family with stories of his ordeals as a young educator:

He used to relate, in an amusing way, his experiences as school-teacher, involving the manner in which he quelled—what was then quite common—rebellion against the teacher. I need not dwell on the experiences of the teacher in those primitive times, further than to refer to the necessity of the strong application of what may be styled military law, when the teacher assumed the only arm of defense at hand, the poker, and disposed of the insurrection as summarily as the necessities of the case required.7

After obtaining his medical license around 1808-1809, Dr. Trowbridge resided in Wethersfield, Vermont for a few years; he then moved to Buffalo in 1811 with a close friend, a lawyer named Jesse Walker.8 Unable to find adequate lodging in the village of Buffalo, Dr. Trowbridge moved across the Niagara River, to Fort Erie, and Mr. Walker went back to Vermont to establish a law practice.9

Soldiers on a March to Buffalo

Fig. 2: Soldiers on a March to Buffalo (c.1812), engraving by William Charles, a humorous depiction of the US militia as unprofessional, ill-prepared, and hindered by their accompanying wives and children. Source: The Lilly Library, Bloomington, Indiana.

When the War of 1812 began, Dr. Trowbridge decided to return to Buffalo, where he established a medical practice with Dr. Cyrenius Chapin; the partnership ended shortly after the war.10 In 1812, the United States was still a young country, and it lacked funds and military strength. Thus, the war was not popular in America, especially in poorly-protected villages near the Canadian border, like Buffalo. Dr. Trowbridge did not like the war, but “gave the government his hearty support, although, in common with a large political party, not recognizing its absolute necessity.”11 Because he was “always ready to respond when humanity or the interests of his country made a demand upon him”, Dr. Trowbridge made himself useful by serving in the Buffalo Light Artillery Company; when British forces burned Buffalo to the ground on December 30, 1813, he helped secure the women and children, and he was one of the last to leave the village during the attack.12

Dr. Trowbridge had had a prior altercation with the British on April 13 of that year, while he and five other men were hunting ducks on Strawberry Island. When a British Lieutenant saw the hunting party, he mistakenly assumed the armed men were engaging in a duel. Dr. Trowbridge and his companions were detained by the British, and sent to Fort George. The story is described in the Pittsburgh Weekly Gazette on April 30, 1813:

On the morning of the 13th, at sunrise, a sporting party, consisting of Lt. Dudley, of the U.S. Navy, stationed at Black Rock, Dr. J. Trowbridge, and F.B. Merrill…attended by three seamen, proceeded from the navy yard to Strawberry Island…for the purpose of hunting water fowl…At 9 0’clock, a party of the British, of 14 men, commanded by Lieut. Fitsgibbon…landed unperceived and took them prisoners. They were sent the same day to Fort George. Dr. Trowbridge and Mr. Merrill were permitted to return…on the 15th at Fort Niagara…Contrary to the invariable practice of the officers of the U.S. navy to British officers in similar situations, who have been paroled, or exchanged immediately, Lieut. Dudley it is believed, will be tortured with a long and fatiguing journey to Boston, via Quebec. Lt. Fitsgibbon assigned as one reason for capturing the sportsmen, that he had suspected them of crossing to the island to settle an affair of honor.

Pittsburgh Weekly Gazette - Fri Apr 30 1813 Josiah Trowbridge Imprisonment

Fig. 3: “Petty Warfare,” Pittsburgh Weekly Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA), April 30, 1813.

Personal Life

Not all engagements between the United States and Canada were hostile at this time. During Dr. Trowbridge’s brief residence in Fort Erie, he met and fell in love with Margaret Wintermute, daughter of John Wintermute and Mary Jane Smith of Fort Erie, Ontario.13 Dr. Trowbridge and Margaret Wintermute were married in Buffalo by the Rev. Elkanah Holmes on September 22, 1813.14 In a letter dated October 11, 1813, Dr. Trowbridge shares the good news with his brother:

I will now inform you something of myself and family, for you must know that I am married. I am not a friend to the war, but I could not forbear engaging in an expedition. On the nineteenth of September, 1813, I crossed into the province of Upper Canada, and succeeded, with the assistance of Cupid, (who, by the by, is a good general,) in capturing one of His Majesty’s subjects, without bloodshed. I have her now in close confinement, and hope I shall be able to keep possession until I have the pleasure of presenting her to you.15

Dr. Trowbridge’s tongue-in-cheek narration alluding to his April detainment reveals a good-humored, irreverent spirit. Margaret Wintermute may not have been the first woman enchanted by the eloquent Doctor. According to family lore, while en route to Buffalo in 1811, Dr. Trowbridge made the acquaintance of a prestigious lawyer, Elisha Williams, and his wife. Apparently, Mrs. Williams was quite taken with the young man, and “afterwards spoke of Doctor Trowbridge as her ‘handsome doctor.'”16 Not everyone found Dr. Trowbridge so appealing, however. Samuel Manning Welch, a playmate of Dr. Trowbridge’s children and a frequent visitor to the Trowbridge home, remembers Dr. Trowbridge as “not among the most amiable of men, though he was socially inclined…not a handsome man, an ungainly figure.” Although Welch does admit that Dr. Trowbridge was “one of the highly honored among our old school men…a man much respected in the community.”17

After the burning of Buffalo, Dr. Trowbridge and Margaret Wintermute Trowbridge — and nearly everyone else in the village — were left homeless. Like many Buffalo refugees, they went east to Clarence, and were forced to take lodging wherever they could find it, until they could rebuild in Buffalo in the spring. John Smith Trowbridge describes the newlyweds’ cramped quarters that winter and spring, at the boarding house owned by Mr. and Mrs. John Root:

It was at a locality then known as ‘Harris Hill,’ three or four miles beyond Williamsville, a small log house, containing one room on the first floor, answering for parlor, dining room, kitchen, &c. The second story was reached by a ladder, furnishing a commodious sleeping room, divided by blankets, for Mr. and Mrs. Heacock, Doctor Trowbridge and wife, and Stephen K. Grosvenor…The testimony of Mrs. R.B. Heacock is, that Mr. Root was more successful in supplying his individual wants, than he was the table and the house.18

Dr. Trowbridge and Margaret eventually re-settled in Buffalo and had eleven children: John Smith, William, Josiah, Benjamin, Mary Jane, another Josiah, James Monroe, Warren, Walter, Louis Luketer, and Henry Warren, all born in Buffalo. Only five of the Trowbridge children survived to adulthood, and only the two eldest children had families of their own.

John Smith Trowbridge, their first child, was born on August 18, 1816.19 On February 23, 1817, he was baptized into the newly-formed congregation of St. Paul’s Church in Buffalo by Rev. Samuel Johnston.20 Like his father, John Smith was a doctor, and established a successful medical practice in Buffalo; during the Civil War he was surgeon of the Erie County board of enrollment, and served as Buffalo city treasurer for a time.21 On May 21, 1846, John Smith married Abby Eliza Heacock, and they had three children.22 Dr. John Smith Trowbridge died in Buffalo on April 2, 1886.23

William Trowbridge, the second-born child of Dr. Trowbridge and Margaret Wintermute, was born on June 29, 1818.24 According to Samuel Manning Welch, “Dr. Trowbridge’s boys (he had a number) had large granaries of wild oats to sow. William…was about the gayest lark of the tribe.”25 Welch portrays Dr. Trowbridge as a watchful, yet indulgent, father: Dr. Trowbridge kept William under supervision by putting him to work at his medical office. He also financially supported his son, even though young William squandered all the money on fashionable clothes, wine, cigars, and food at the local restaurants — namely, on Laidley’s famous oyster buffet, as well as dishes of pigs feet and tripe at Perry’s Coffee House. However, Dr. Trowbridge’s patience had a limit: Welch states that in 1836, when William couldn’t afford to pay his tab at Perry’s, the owner approached Dr. Trowbridge with his son’s $163.50 bill (that would be about $4192.31 in 2015 dollars26). After William admitted that the amount was accurate, an appalled Dr. Trowbridge exclaimed, “I’ll be d—-d if I pay such a scandalous bill!”27

Before William was old enough to start a tab at the local establishments, he reportedly spent one evening in the Trowbridge’s dining room “treating” his friends–including Samuel Manning Welch–to drinks out of his father’s sherry decanter, while Dr. Trowbridge was busy playing whist with company in the drawing room. Welch describes what happened next:

Fearing discovery, [William] had taken the black bottle of pale brandy and filled up the vacuum in the sherry decanter; very soon, the party in the drawing room adjourned for recuperation and we heard the Doctor talking about some very fine sherry that he had broached that day…He remarked “That the sherry of which he wished their opinion, was free of the common fault of most sherries; it was not brandied…”

The gentlemen were all preparing to smack their lips as the Doctor filled the glasses from the decanter which young Doctor Will had been doctoring. Imagine our consternation when the gentlemen were simultaneously attacked with sudden fits of choking and coughing.28

Guessing what had happened to his sherry, Dr. Trowbridge directed “a severe look” at William and his friends and said: “‘Well, well!…My butler must have broached the wrong cask.'”29 Judging by his amusingly measured response to William’s shenanigans, Dr. Trowbridge seems to have been a tolerant father as well.

William Trowbridge became a lawyer. On January 24, 1851, he married Jane Rosevear in St. Louis, Missouri, and they had six children. William practiced law in various cities, and he and his family lived all over the North American continent. William Trowbridge died in Memphis, Tennessee on December 11, 1862.30

The third child of Dr. Trowbridge and Margaret Wintermute — named Josiah after his father — was born on August 26, 1820, and died in Buffalo, at the age of five.31

New York Tribune - Nov 27 1845 - Loss of the Texas

Fig. 4: “The Gale on the Lakes”, New York Tribune (New York, NY), November 27, 1845.

The fourth child, Benjamin, was born on September 14, 1822.32 He was a shipmaster. In 1845, he was captain of the schooner Texas, and his younger brother, James Monroe (the seventh Trowbridge child, born on March 10, 1828), was a member of the ship’s crew. In November 1845, Captain Benjamin reportedly left James Monroe in charge of the Texas while he went ashore for supplies. On November 20, a gale on Lake Erie caused the Texas to capsize, losing the entire crew, including 17-year-old James Monroe.

Detroit Free Press - Dec 5 1845 - Loss of the Texas

Fig. 5: All aboard the Texas are confirmed lost, Detroit Free Press (Detroit, MI), December 5, 1845.

New York Tribune - Nov 9 1846 - Body of James Monroe Trowbridge found

Fig. 6: The body of James Monroe Trowbridge washes ashore, New York Tribune (New York, NY), November 9, 1846.

Captain Benjamin Trowbridge found the hull of the Texas off Long Point Cut, but the body of his brother wasn’t recovered until nearly a year later, when it was washed ashore at Long Point. Benjamin never married; he died in Brooklyn on September 15, 1857, the day after his thirty-fifth birthday.33

The fifth Trowbridge child, Mary Jane, was born on August 24, 1824, and died in Buffalo at the age of one. The sixth child — another Josiah — was born on September 8, 1826, and died in Buffalo at ten months old. The eighth child, Warren, was born on October 16, 1830, and died in Buffalo at eight months old. The ninth child, Walter, was born on September 30, 1833, and died in Buffalo on March 18, 1850.34

The tenth child, Louis Luketer, was born on January 5, 1836. He had many legal problems during his life. In a jailhouse interview with a reporter from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch in 1893, Louis claims to have committed his first crime in 1857, when he forged a check for $1800 in Buffalo. Louis states that when Dr. Trowbridge discovered the crime, he sent Louis away to work on a whaling ship, and Dr. Trowbridge “made good the $1800.” Louis served on the bark Gypsy from 1857 til the start of the Civil War.35

Brooklyn Daily Eagle - Jul 24 1892 - Louis Trowbridge wanted in Buffalo for grand larceny

Fig. 7: “A Private Detective Who is Wanted.” Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY), July 24, 1892.

The Times Picayune - Jul 5 1893 - Louis Trowbridge arrested

Fig. 8: “For His Crime.” Times Picayune (New Orleans, LA), July 5, 1893.

Louis Trowbridge enlisted in the 27th Independent Battery Light Artillery in Buffalo on September 13, 1862; he deserted on November 30, 1863.36 Louis appears on the crew list for the schooner Glacier in 1864.37 He claims to have spent time in Canada before eventually ending up in California. According to Francis Bacon Trowbridge, the Trowbridge family never again heard from Louis after 1878.38

Louis ran into money problems after the last surviving member of his immediate family — his eldest brother John Smith Trowbridge — died in 1886. The exact details of Louis’s life around this time are fuzzy. Louis gives his own account in statements to police and the Post-Dispatch, however, Louis was an admitted serial forger, and by 1893 he was reportedly suffering from the physical and mental effects of the kidney condition known as Bright’s disease. Louis gives his correct date of birth, as well as his father’s name and some details from his past. However, Louis incorrectly claims that he had seven brothers (he had nine brothers, but three of them died in infancy before Louis was born). Even ignoring that error, Louis also claims that “one of his sisters is the wife of General George S. Fields[sic], the present chairman of the Board of Public Works in Buffalo. Another sister, he says, is married to Edmund Hayes, a large stockholder in the Union Bridge Company.” While the wives of these two (very well-known) Buffalo men were, in fact, sisters, their maiden name was Warren, not Trowbridge; and Louis only had one sister (she, too, died in infancy before he was born). Nevertheless, the contemporary news articles written about Louis Trowbridge remain valuable sources of information.

San Francisco Chronicle - Jul 2 1893 - Louis Trowbridge turns himself in to police

Fig. 9: “Remorse For a Crime.” San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco, CA), July 2, 1893.

According to Louis, he was living in a boarding house in California in 1889, “and being without money decided to commit forgery.” He allegedly forged the signature of Warren Jones, a banker in Eureka, to a check for $1800, and then convinced his friend and former boss, W.F. Harmon, to cash the check for him. Louis maintains that Harmon did not know the check was forged. In his courtroom testimony, Harmon states that he gave Louis $1500, taking $300, he claims, as repayment of a prior debt.

Louis states that two days after receiving the money from Harmon, he proposed marriage to a chambermaid named Julia Miller, and, after a quick ceremony, the newlyweds “went East.” Louis maintains that his wife had no knowledge of her husband’s crimes. After Louis disappeared, W.F. Harmon was arrested and imprisoned for the forgery, and given a seven-year sentence at San Quentin prison — a fact which, Louis claims, he was unaware of until later.

St Louis Post Dispatch Jul 5 1893 - Louis L. Trowbridge sent back to Buffalo

Fig. 10: “Trowbridge Talks.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, MO), July 5, 1893.

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle reports that by 1892, Louis had returned to Buffalo, and was working as a “private detective” (security guard) for Gies & Co., a commercial lithographing establishment. In July 1892, Louis was accused of taking bank notes printed by Gies & Co. for Warren Savings Bank, then filling out a note to himself for $2500, and endorsing the note with the forged signatures of the bank’s president and cashier. Louis then cashed the fraudulent note at the Third National Bank in Buffalo. Louis and his wife left town by the time the forgery was discovered, and the Buffalo police began searching for them. It is unclear if Louis’s wife knew about the forgery, but she was wanted by the police as an accessory to the crime.

Louis claims that by 1893, he and his wife were living in St. Louis, but he was so ill with Bright’s disease that he was unable to work. Louis states that he separated from his wife, and she “returned west to her folks.” They had no children together.

Around this time, Louis learned from a stranger about Harmon’s imprisonment. Louis says he felt such remorse that he spent his last 25 cents on a bottle of laudanum, with the intention, he claims, of ending his life. “Upon reflection he thought it would be cowardly to take this course and leave his innocent friend still a convict in the California prison,” so Louis turned himself in to the St. Louis police.

The New York Times - Jul 11 1893 - Louis Trowbridge sent back to Buffalo

Fig. 11: “Back to Stand his Trial.” New York Times (New York, NY), July 11, 1893.

The Daily Times - Jul 20 1893 - Louis L. Trowbridge receives four years in Erie County penitentiary

Fig. 12: “Four Years for a Forger.” The Daily Times (New Brunswick, NJ), July 20, 1893.

Apparently, the authorities were not overly-concerned about his confession to a crime in California — Harmon had already been released early from prison (Louis claims this was a fact unbeknownst to him at the time of his surrender). Rather, they sent Louis back to Buffalo, where he was wanted for grand larceny. He was sentenced to four years in the Erie County penitentiary, beginning his sentence on July 19, 1893. Louis was released from prison one year early on July 18, 1896; after his release, Louis Luketer Trowbridge disappears from historical record.39

The eleventh child of Dr. Trowbridge and Margaret Wintermute, Henry Warren, was born on December 9, 1838. He was a lawyer, and served in the Civil War as captain of Company F, 5th Michigan Infantry; he died of typhoid at Fort Monroe on May 9, 1862.40

Detroit Free Press - May 14 1862 - Death of Henry Warren Trowbridge

Fig. 13: “Death of Captain Henry W. Trowbridge,” Detroit Free Press (Detroit, MI), May 14, 1862.

Professional and Political Life

Dr. Trowbridge was elected as the first Buffalo village treasurer in 1816; he served again as treasurer in 1817.41 He was the librarian of the Niagara County Medical Society in 1819, and was a charter member of the Medical Society of Erie County in 1821.42

Dr. Trowbridge was elected Supervisor of Buffalo in 1823, 1825, and 1827.43 He was also president of the Buffalo Military Scientific and Literary Academy.44 He was elected president of the Buffalo Lyceum in 1832, and in 1833, Dr. Trowbridge received an honorary degree of “Doctor of Medicine” by the Regents of the University.45

On September 8, 1823, Dr. Trowbridge and Dr. John E. Marshall formed a medical practice under the name Marshall & Trowbridge; the firm was dissolved in 1829 due to Dr. Marshall’s poor health, and Dr. Trowbridge established Trowbridge & Sprague.46 When Dr. Marshall was well enough to resume practice on October 16, 1830, Dr. Marshall and Dr. Trowbridge established a new firm called Trowbridge & Marshall, which lasted until December 2, 1831.47 In the 1832 Buffalo City Directory, Dr. Trowbridge’s medical office is located in the Eagle Buildings, and his house is located on Pearl Street.48 By 1836, Dr. Trowbridge had partnered with Dr. Charles Winne, and established the firm of Trowbridge & Winne, located at 288 Main Street.49

In 1836, Dr. Trowbridge took a break from the medical profession and concentrated his efforts on his other business efforts, namely the United States Hotel, newly-built by Dr. Trowbridge on the Terrace; he even lived at the hotel for a few years.50

The early 1830s in Buffalo were a time of feverish land speculation and loose lending practices, as well as immense growth. Master builder Benjamin Rathbun constructed numerous buildings for Buffalo residents, and employed many Buffalo laborers on his building sites — until it was discovered in 1836 that Rathbun (or people working for him) had forged banknotes to pay off debts related to Rathbun’s construction projects. This resulted in economic devastation for Buffalo and financial devastation for many Buffalo citizens. Due to Dr. Trowbridge’s practice of “loaning his name and money among his supposed friends,”51 Dr. Trowbridge lost everything in the economic collapse of 1836-1837.

In early 1837, after taking 130 ballots to reach a unanimous decision, the Buffalo Common Council elected Dr. Trowbridge as mayor of Buffalo.52 He accepted the office with this speech on March 14, 1837:

Allow me to tender my sincere thanks for the honor which you have conferred upon me, by electing me to the mayoralty of this city.
I regret that your choice should not have fallen upon some person better qualified than myself to discharge the arduous and responsible duties of the office. If, however, honesty of purpose and zeal to promote the best interests of this city can in any degree supply the want of other qualities, rest assured they will thus far be supplied.
I accept the appointment, relying with confidence upon your aid and assistance in the discharge of my duties and also upon your forbearance towards any errors which I may inadvertently commit.53

The Long Island Star - Mar 23 1837 - Dr. Josiah Trowbridge elected mayor of Buffalo

Fig. 14: “Dr. Josiah Trowbridge, after 140 ballottings, is chosen Mayor of Buffalo”, The Long Island Star (Brooklyn, NY), March 23, 1837.

That year, a company was formed for the construction of a road from Buffalo to Williamsville; the road was completed a few years later.54 New positions — including the office of police justice and superintendent of schools — were created through amendments to the city charter, with the positions appointed by the Common Council.55

Dr. Trowbridge attempted to improve the city to his standards by raising taxes to support schools, as well as asking “to have an ordinance passed for more effectual prevention of gambling now existing in the city and for punishment of which the present laws were inadequate.”56

During this time, rebellion against British rule had been brewing in the Canadian provinces. The Canadians “found a sympathetic audience of Americans, still resentful of the 1813 burning of Buffalo and holding little love for their British neighbors. To many Americans, the Canadian uprising represented a belated continuation of their own revolution.”57 Dr. Trowbridge himself felt sympathy for the Canadians, especially since his wife and her family were Canadian, but providing American aid to Canada against the British government would violate neutrality between the United States and the British Empire, possibly leading to war between the United States and England.

Dr. Trowbridge, still dealing with the financial and emotional fall-out from Benjamin Rathbun’s forgeries, took an extended leave of absence on June 17, 1837; Alderman Pierre A. Barker was appointed by the council to act as mayor pro tem.58 In November 1837, civil uprising in Lower Canada erupted into the Patriot War. Martial law was declared in Canada on December 16, and on December 19, New York Governor William Marcy issued a proclamation against interference in Canadian domestic matters.59 Unable to maintain law and order in Buffalo, Dr. Trowbridge resigned on December 21, 1837.60

Later Years

Dr. Trowbridge continued his medical practice until aging and disability forced his retirement in 1856.61 Of his father’s final days, John Smith Trowbridge remarks:

It was my practice to spend a portion of each of his latter days in his company. I left him on the evening of the twenty-seventh of September, 1862, in his usual health and spirits. Early the next morning I was suddenly but not unexpectedly called to find him in an insensible condition. He rallied for a short time, not sufficiently long to be able to give expression to his wishes, but so as to be conscious of his situation. Soon, with a smile on his countenance, and without pain, he passed into that eternity in which we hope and believe the cares and distractions of life and the necessities of administering to the physical sufferings of humanity are ended.62

John Smith Trowbridge likely made an error regarding his father’s date of death: Francis Bacon Trowbridge claims it is September 18, 1862, while Dr. Trowbridge’s grave at Forest Lawn cemetery in Buffalo says his date of death is September 13, 1862.63 Margaret Wintermute Trowbridge died in Buffalo on October 24, 1863.64


Notes:

  1. Francis Bacon Trowbridge, comp., The Trowbridge Genealogy: History of the Trowbridge Family in America, Volume 1 (New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse, & Taylor Company, 1908), 551.
  2. Ibid., 526-527.
  3. Ibid., 551.
  4. Ibid.
  5. John S. Trowbridge, “Biographical Sketch of the Late Josiah Trowbridge, M.D. of Buffalo,” Buffalo Medical and Surgical Journal, vol. VIII (1869): 493.
  6. Trowbridge, The Trowbridge Genealogy: History of the Trowbridge Family in America, 551.
  7. Trowbridge, “Biographical Sketch of the Late Josiah Trowbridge, M.D. of Buffalo,” 493.
  8. Michael F. Rizzo, Through the Mayors’ Eyes: Buffalo, New York 1832-2005 (Buffalo: Old House History, 2010), Kindle edition.
  9. Trowbridge, “Biographical Sketch of the Late Josiah Trowbridge, M.D. of Buffalo,” 493.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Trowbridge, The Trowbridge Genealogy: History of the Trowbridge Family in America, 552.
  12. Ibid., 551-552.
  13. Trowbridge, “Biographical Sketch of the Late Josiah Trowbridge, M.D. of Buffalo,” 494.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Ibid., 493
  16. Both quotes from: Samuel Manning Welch, Home History: Recollections of Buffalo during the Decade from 1830 to 1840, or, Fifty Years Since (Buffalo: Peter Paul & Bro, 1891), 335.
  17. Trowbridge, “Biographical Sketch of the Late Josiah Trowbridge, M.D. of Buffalo,” 497.
  18. Trowbridge, The Trowbridge Genealogy: History of the Trowbridge Family in America, 555.
  19. Charles W. Evans, History of St. Paul’s Church, Buffalo, NY, ed. Alice M. Evans Bartlett and G. Bartlett (Buffalo: Matthews-Northrup, 1903), 8.
  20. Trowbridge, The Trowbridge Genealogy: History of the Trowbridge Family in America, 602.
  21. Ibid.
  22. Ibid.
  23. Ibid., 603.
  24. Welch, Home History: Recollections of Buffalo during the Decade from 1830 to 1840, or, Fifty Years Since, 336.
  25. http://www.davemanuel.com/inflation-calculator.php.
  26. Welch, Home History: Recollections of Buffalo during the Decade from 1830 to 1840, or, Fifty Years Since, 337.
  27. Ibid., 336.
  28. Ibid. An amusing book written fifty years later, it is impossible to know if the personal anecdotes in Samuel Manning Welch’s Recollections are all completely true, or if Welch took some creative license.
  29. Fact in this paragraph from: Trowbridge, The Trowbridge Genealogy: History of the Trowbridge Family in America, 603.
  30. Ibid., 555.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Ibid.
  33. Ibid.
  34. Ibid.
  35. “Whaling Crew List Database,” courtesy New Bedford Whaling Museum, available from whaling museum.org.
  36. “New York, Civil War Muster Roll Abstracts, 1861-1900,” courtesy New York State Archives, available from ancestry.com.
  37. “Whaling Crew List Database,” courtesy New Bedford Whaling Museum, available from whaling museum.org.
  38. Trowbridge, The Trowbridge Genealogy: History of the Trowbridge Family in America, 555.
  39. “New York, Discharges of Convicts, 1882-1915,” courtesy New York State Archives, available from ancestry.com.
  40. Trowbridge, The Trowbridge Genealogy: History of the Trowbridge Family in America, 555.
  41. Rizzo, Through the Mayors’ Eyes: Buffalo, New York 1832-2005, Kindle edition.
  42. Ibid.
  43. Ibid.
  44. Ibid.
  45. Ibid.
  46. Trowbridge, “Biographical Sketch of the Late Josiah Trowbridge, M.D. of Buffalo,” 494.
  47. Ibid.
  48. “Buffalo City Directory, 1832,” courtesy Buffalo and Erie County Public Library, obtained from nyheritage.org.
  49. “Buffalo City Directory, 1836,” courtesy Buffalo and Erie County Public Library, obtained from nyheritage.org.
  50. Trowbridge, “Biographical Sketch of the Late Josiah Trowbridge, M.D. of Buffalo,” 497.
  51. Ibid.
  52. Rizzo, Through the Mayors’ Eyes: Buffalo, New York 1832-2005, Kindle edition.
  53. Ibid.
  54. Ibid.
  55. Ibid.
  56. Ibid.
  57. “The Patriots’ War on the Niagara Frontier and the Buffalo Barracks,” courtesy Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site, available from https://www.nps.gov/thri/buffalobarracks.htm.
  58. Rizzo, Through the Mayors’ Eyes: Buffalo, New York 1832-2005, Kindle edition.
  59. Ibid.
  60. Ibid.
  61. Trowbridge, “Biographical Sketch of the Late Josiah Trowbridge, M.D. of Buffalo,” 499.
  62. Ibid., 503-504.
  63. Trowbridge, The Trowbridge Genealogy: History of the Trowbridge Family in America, 551.
  64. Ibid.

Images:

Fig. 1: N.W. Corner of Pearl and Huron Sts. (c.1840s-1913), photograph, Buffalo & Erie County Public Library, Buffalo, New York. Available from: http://nyheritage.nnyln.net/cdm/ref/collection/VHB001/id/1036.

Fig. 2: Charles, William, Soldiers on a March to Buffalo (c.1812), engraving, The Lilly Library, Bloomington, Indiana. Available from: http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/images/item.htm?id=http://purl.dlib.indiana.edu/iudl/lilly/VAC1755/VAC1755-03087.

Fig. 3: “Petty Warfare,” Pittsburgh Weekly Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA), April 30, 1813. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 4: “The Gale on the Lakes”, New York Tribune (New York, NY), November 27, 1845. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 5: All aboard the Texas are confirmed lost, Detroit Free Press (Detroit, MI), December 5, 1845. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 6: The body of James Monroe Trowbridge washes ashore, New York Tribune (New York, NY), November 9, 1846. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 7: “A Private Detective Who is Wanted.” Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY), July 24, 1892. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 8: “For His Crime. Louis Trowbridge discovers his friend is paying the penalty.” Times Picayune (New Orleans, LA), July 5, 1893. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 9: “Remorse For a Crime. A San Francisco Forger’s Confession.” San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco, CA), July 2, 1893. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 10: “Trowbridge Talks.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (St. Louis, MO), July 5, 1893. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 11: “Back to Stand his Trial.” New York Times (New York, NY), July 11, 1893. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 12: “Four Years for a Forger.” The Daily Times (New Brunswick, NJ), July 20, 1893. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 13: “Death of Captain Henry W. Trowbridge,” Detroit Free Press (Detroit, MI), May 14, 1862. Newspapers.com.

Fig. 14: “Dr. Josiah Trowbridge, after 140 ballottings, is chosen Mayor of Buffalo”, The Long Island Star (Brooklyn, NY), March 23, 1837. Newspapers.com.

Sources:

Evans, Charles W. History of St. Paul’s Church, Buffalo, NY. Edited by Alice M. Evans Bartlett and G. Bartlett. Buffalo: Matthews-Northrup, 1903.

Rizzo, Michael F. Through the Mayors’ Eyes: Buffalo, New York 1832-2005. Buffalo: Old House History, 2010. Kindle edition.

Trowbridge, Francis Bacon, comp. The Trowbridge Genealogy: History of the Trowbridge Family in America, vol. 1. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Company, 1908.

Trowbridge, John S. “Biographical Sketch of the Late Josiah Trowbridge, M.D. of Buffalo.” Buffalo Medical and Surgical Journal, vol. VIII (1869): 485-504.

Welch, Samuel Manning. Home History: Recollections of Buffalo during the Decade from 1830 to 1840, or, Fifty Years Since. Buffalo: Peter Paul & Bro, 1891.